Registrar Security FAQ

How does the Registry control access to the Shared Registry System?

Access to the Shared Registry System is restricted by three mechanisms:

  • Access control to the production SRS is restricted by IP address filters.
  • SSL encryption is required for the communication channels between the Registrar's client system and the OT&E and production systems.
  • Authentication by means of a username and password is required for session establishment.

The SRS requires the correct combination of the three mechanisms for each registrar before access is granted.

How do I specify the IP addresses that can access the SRS?

The Registrar Data Form has a section where registrars may specify the IP subnets that will be accessing the production SRS. The specified subnets must conform to the following rules:

  • A maximum of 3 IP subnets
  • A maximum of 96 hosts between the three IP subnets
  • The ranges must be written in CIDR format (e.g.
    where the "/27" represents the length of the subnet). We cannot
    accept any ranges below a /26 range (i.e. /25, /24, etc). CIDR format dictates
    the number of hosts within each range. The ranges are as follows:
    • /26 = 64 hosts
    • /27 = 32 hosts
    • /28 = 16 hosts
    • /29 = 8 hosts
    • /30 = 4 hosts
    • /31 = 2 hosts
    • /32 = 1 host
  • Examples of valid subnets include:
    • One subnet of 64 hosts (e.g.
    • One subnet of 64 hosts and one subnet of 32 hosts or less (e.g. subnet #1 as, which represents 64 addresses to; and subnet #2 as, which represents 32 addresses to
    • Three subnets of 32 hosts or less (e.g. subnet #1 as, which represents 32 addresses to; subnet #2 as, which represents 32 addresses to; and subnet #3 as, which represents 32 addresses to
  • The specified subnets must fall on valid bit boundaries. For example, a subnet specified as is not acceptable because ".1" is not a valid boundary for a /27 subnet. The following table defines the valid boundaries for each subnet length.

Length of Subnet Number of Hosts Boundaries
/26 64 0,64,128,192
/27 32 0,32,64,96,128,160,192,224
/28 16 0,16,32,48,64,80,96,112,128, 144,160,176,192,208,224,240
/29 8 0,8,16,24,32,40,...,248 (in increments of 8)
/30 4 0,4,8,12,16,20,...,252 (in increments of 4)
/31 2 0,2,4,6,8,12,...,254 (in increments of 2)
/32 1 0 through 255 (in increments of 1)

What is a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) certificate?

A digital certificate is simply a statement digitally signed by an independent and trusted third party (the Certificate Authority). That statement usually follows a very specific format laid down in a standard called X.509, hence they are sometimes referred to as X.509 certificates.

A certificate is required to establish an authenticated and encrypted communications channel between the Registrar's server and the Registry's SRS.

Where do I get a SSL Certificate?

X.509 SSL certificates can be obtained from one of the accepted Certificate Authorities. Please make sure that the
certificate you obtain is NOT an individual/personal certificate. The accepted Certificate Authorities are

Intermediate Certificate Details: Issuer: C=US, O=Starfield Technologies, Inc., OU=Starfield Class 2

Certification Authority


Not Before: Nov 16 01:15:40 2006 GMT

Not After : Nov 16 01:15:40 2026 GMT

Subject: C=US, ST=Arizona, L=Scottsdale, O=Starfield Technologies, Inc., OU=
sitory, CN=Starfield Secure Certification Authority/serialNumber=10688435

Root Certificate Details:

Issuer: C=US, O=Starfield Technologies, Inc., OU=Starfield Class 2

Certification Authority


Not Before: Jun 29 17:39:16 2004 GMT

Not After : Jun 29 17:39:16 2034 GMT

Subject: C=US, O=Starfield Technologies, Inc., OU=Starfield Class 2

Certification Authority

If you would like to use a Certificate Authority that is not on this list, please contact us.

What is the requirement for the purpose of "SSL Client: Yes" for the SSL certificate I purchase?

This defines the purpose of the certificate and whether it can be used as client certificate.   The following is a sample of an expected output from the command:

openssl x509 -in your_cert.filename -purpose

Certificate purposes:
SSL client : Yes
SSL client CA : No
SSL server : Yes
SSL server CA : No
Netscape SSL server : Yes
Netscape SSL server CA : No
S/MIME signing : No
S/MIME signing CA : No

S/MIME encryption : No
S/MIME encryption CA : No
CRL signing : Yes
CRL signing CA : No
Any Purpose : Yes
Any Purpose CA : Yes
OCSP helper : Yes
OCSP helper CA : No

Please ensure that the certificate you purchase has "YES" for SSL client. As noted, this certificate can be used for both server and client purposes.

Which SSL toolkit should I use?

Registrars are responsible for obtaining an SSL toolkit that is compatible
with the development language and platform of their client system. The minimum
requirement is that it must support SSL version 3.

For C, C++ or Perl, OpenSSL is an open-source SSL

For Java:

Which cipher suites are accepted?

To establish a SSL connection to the SRS, the Registrar's client system must choose a cipher suite supported by the SRS. The SRS supports the following ciphers:

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5

When do I get the username/password for the production SRS?

The username and password for the production SRS is issued after you have successfully
completed OT&E certification and have completed funding.

Feb. 16, 2010

Belize City, Belize (February 16, 2010) - University Management Limited, the registry operator for B... Read more

more news and events»

What is a domain name?
A domain name is the address of your website, for example It is unique and once a... read more

What is a Top Level Domain?
The Top Level Domains (TLDs) are the highest hierarchical level in the international Domain Name System (DNS)... read more

more Frequently Asked Questions»

University Management Limited

#115 Barrack Road

3rd Floor

Belize City, Belize C.A.

tel: +(501) 223 1607

fax: +(501) 223 2242


AfiliasWorldwide offices

Building 3, Suite 105

300 Welsh Road

Horsham, PA 19044

tel: +(1) 215 706 5700

toll free: +(1) 866 dot.INFO

fax: +(1) 215 706 5701